Prenatal Diagnostics to Determine Fetal Anemia in Thalassemia Carrier Parents
International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare and Nursing
Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp: (86-90), Month: September-December 2015
Prenatal screening is needed in cases of blood disorders that cause hemolysis and eventually lead to anemia and death of the fetus. At this time a constraint for prenatal diagnostic is a fairly expensive for most levels of the Indonesian economy. DNA analysis at this point considered the most accurate and can determine whether the fetus is exposed to major or minor gene abnormality.
The examination for the actual screening is not feasible because can only be done in a particular city and can not be done in every place. Screening of thalassemia, which had been performed abroad, while in Indonesia currently no program for it although new patient increase. The way a simple laboratory has long been known, especially checking MCV and MCH and blood osmotic fragility test (OTOFT) in the mother, but the main choice is fetal chorionic vilous sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. Both of these tests require examination of DNA that are quite expensive.
Ultrasonography is a tool that is commonly used today in the field of obstetrics. Technological advances, especially Doppler ultrasound has become commonly used. Detection of fetal anemia on serial ultrasound, either with or without Doppler can be used primarily to detect anemia in fetuses by parents who have thalassemia carrier.
Measurement cardiothoracic ratio (without Doppler) and measurement of peak systolic velocity (PSV) in middle cerebral artery (with Doppler), performed serially can detect fetuses with anemia earlier to allow for further examination and treatment in the pregnancy.
Keywords: Fetal anemia, prenatal diagnostic, thalassemia.